I. The below has incomplete sentences. Choose the one word or phrase from each number the best completes the sentence.

The widespread innovations in modern digital technology have accumulated over 50 million ton of electronics waste (e-waste) globally every year. It is obviously a (41) ____ downside the these innovations. This waste is (42) ____ than all of the world’s commercial airliners ever made, or enough Eiffel Towers to fill the borough of Manhattan in New York city, warns a new report (43) ____ at the World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos, January 24. Currently only 20% of e-waste including desktop computers, cell phone, laptops, television sets, printers, and (44) ___ household electrical appliances formally recycled. If nothing (45) ____ , the United Nations University (UNU), one of the authors of the report, predict e-waste could nearly triple to 120 million tons by 2050.
     The study says it is difficult to gauge how many electrical goods are produced annually. (46) ____, just taking account of device connected (47) ____ the internet, they  now number many more than humans, whose total world population now stand at over 7.7 billion. The joint report titled “ A New Circular Vision for Electronics – Time for Global Reboot”, and (48) ____ by seven UN agencies, points out (49) ____ rapid innovation and lowering costs (50) ____ access to electronic products and digital technology, with many benefits.

Accessed 30 March 2017.

a. devastated
b. devastation
c. devastative
d. devastator
e. devastating

a. greater in weight
b. its weight is greater
c. the greater the wight
d. a greater weight
e. the greater its weight

a. releasing
b. released
c. releases
d. which releases
e. that releases

a. a variety of wide
b. various wide
c. a wide variety of
d. vary widely
e. widely vary

a. will change
b. has changed
c. changes
d. could have changed
e. would change

a. However
b. Additionally
c. Unless
d. Moreover
e. Futhermore

a. by
b. in
c. with
d. to
e. from

a. backs
b. backed
c. backing
d. back
e. to back

a. the
b. this
c. those
d. that
e. these

a. are dramatic increases
b. haven dramatically been increased
c. have a dramatic increase
d. dramatically increased
e. have dramatically increased

II. Study the passage and choose the best answer to the questions that follow.

Last January, a study in Nature Climate Change showed that the world’s glaciers are the smallest they have been in human history, revealing radiocarbon material that has not been exposed for 40.000 years. Now, new research published in Nature quantifies how much the world’s lost glaciers have contributed to rising sea levels.
     From 1961, when reliable record keeping began, to 2016, the ocean crawled up 27 milimeters as a result of ice sloughing off the world’s non-polar glaciers. Scientists had known that melting glaciers contribute to sea-level rise, but the new study take a comprehensive look at how much and how quickly they are melting. They found mountain glaciers contribute roughly a third of measured sea-level rise-the same contribution to sea-level rise as the Greenland ice sheet and more than the contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet. Thier research also highlighted that many of the world’s glaciers may disappear in the next century. In total, NASA estimates that sea levels rise by three millimeters each year. As oceans warm further, scientists estimate thermal expansion will force sea level up even more.
     The study looked at 19 geologically distinct regions that had been previously segmented by the Randolph Glacier Inventory. For each of these regions, they relied on field data from the World Glacier Monitoring Service. In any of these regions, field measurements are generally only available for one or two glaciers.
     To get a more detailed analysis, the researchers used data collected from airborne and satellite surveys to calculate changes in a glacier’s volume. Not only did they find that sea levels have risen as much as 27 millimeters in the past 50 years, they also calculated change in glacial mass from 2006 to 2016, finding that sea level roughly increased one millimeter each year. Their data showed that in the 1960s and 1970s, glaciers had predictable seasonal changes, losing mass in the summer and regaining it in the winter. In the 1980s, data showed more was lost than regained, and by the 1990s, all the glaciers they measured showed they were losing more volume than they could replace.
     To see how much that contributed to rising sea levels, the researchers then divided the total mass lost from glaciers by the surface of the ocean. Coastal towns are already beginning to feel the impacts of sea-level rise. In the Outer Banks in North Carolina, neighborhoods that once looked over the ocean have begun to fall into it. Major cities like Miami are developing adaption plans for when, not if, seas rise.
     Melting glaciers will also impact the inland communities that rely on them. The Peruvian Andes are home to some of the world’s most heavily relied upon glaciers. Since the Inca, Peru’s glaciers have been a crucial source of freshwater for human consumption and agriculture. A study published las October in the journal Scientific Reports estimated that the Quelccaya Ice Cap, a region that spans more than 9,000 football fields, could reach a tipping point if emission are not reduced in the next 30 years.

Accessed 11 February 2019.

51. What is the topic of the text?
a. Seasonal changes of glaciers
b. Analysis of glaciers’ volume
c. The smallest glaciers in the human history
d. Contribution of melting glaciers to sea-level rise
e. Disappearance of glaciers in the human history

52. It can be inferred from the text that
a. glaciers can last for 40,000 years
b. melting glaciers are not the only factor causing sea-level rise
c. sea-level rise is result of seasonal changes
d. it is impossible to predict changes in a glacier’s volume in the past
e. glaciers could always replace the losing mass

53. Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the word “highlighted” in line 8 ?
a. explored
b. bold
c. underlined
d. uncovered
e. colored
*kata yang dimaksud berwarna kuning

54. The pronoun “they” in line 19 refers to
a. data
b. changes
c. airborne and satellite surveys
d. field measurements
e. researchers
*kata yang dimaksud berwarna kuning

55. ...

56. The text states all the following, EXCEPT
a. researchers used radiocarbon to measure changes in glacial mass
b. the Greenland ice sheet also contributed to sea-level rise
c. satellite surveys were used to study glacier
d. mountain glaciers contributed more to sea-level rise than Antarctic ice sheet
e. the World Glaciers Monitoring Service provided reliable data for the study

57. Which of the following is TRUE according to the text?
a. Sea levels rise by three millimeters each decade
b. Glaciers can be found only at Earth’s South and North Poles.
c. Glaciers lost mass in the summer but could not regain it in the winter after the 1990s.
d. NASA conducted a glacier research at the Greenland ice sheet.
e. Nature published NASA’s study.

58. Which of the following best describes the organization of the text?
a. Spatial order
b. Chronological order
c. Cause and effect order
d. Definition and example
e. General to specific order

59. It can be inferred from the text that about 5 decades ago a glacier’s volume
a. was relatively stable
b. was unpredictable
c. did not change in the summer and winter
d. increase significantly per year
e. decreased in the winter

60. What is the purpose of the text?
a. To describe works conducted by NASA researchers
b. To present an alarming fact about possible disappearance of glaciers
c. To explain scientific findings about changes in a glacier’s volume
d. To predict changes in glacial mass in the next 50 years
e. To provide an actual measurements of glaciers
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