Soal SBMPTN 2016 Bahasa Inggris

Soal SBMPTN 2016 Bahasa Inggris
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The way your brain works may vary from season to season,  a new study suggests. Researchers found that when people in the study did certain cognitive tasks, the ways the brain utilize its resources to complete those tasks changed with the seasons.
  Although people’s actual performance on the cognitive tasks did not alter with the seasons, “the brain activity for the ongoing process varied,” said study author Gilles Vandewalle, of the University of liege in Belgium.
  In the study, the researchers looked at the cognitive brain function fo 28 people in Belgium during each season of the year. Each time, the people spent 4.5 days deep in lab, without access to the external world or seasonal cues such as daylight.
  The researchers scanned the participants’ brain while they performed tasks, testing their ability to sustain attention and to store, update, and compare information in their memories. The researchers found that people’s performance on these tasks did not change, regardless fo the time of the year. However, results did not show neural “cost” of performing these  cognitive tasks – the amount brain activity involved- changed with the time of the year. For example, the level brain activity related to sustaining attention peaked in June, near the summer solstice, and were lowest in December, and around the winter solstice. In contrast, the level brain activity related to working memory peaked in the autumn, and were lower around the spring the spring equinox.
   Previous research has shown that changes in seasons are linked to changes in other processes related to people’s daily functioning. For example, people tend to consume more calories in winter than in summer , the researchers said. And a study published in 2015 in the Journal of Nature Communications found that the activity of human genes changes with the seasons, along with people’s immunity. Moreover, research has shown a link between seasons and mood, with some people experiencing symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in fall and winter months, the researchers said.

76. The passage mainly discusses a topic on
A.       Results of research on cognitive tasks
B.       How brain system work each season
C.       Correlation between time in a hear and how brain works
D.       People’s performance on cognitive tasks in a year
E.        Relationship between seasons and feeling

77. The word alter in line 3 the passage is closest in meaning to
A.       Correspond
B.       Change
C.       Improve
D.       Manage
E.        Coincide

78. What may happen when someone takes 2 tests of similar level of difficulty in July and nearer Christmas?
A.       The result will not affected by the time he or she takes the test
B.       The result of the second test will be higher that that of the first
C.       The result both test will show very slight differences
D.       The result of the second test may be lower that the previous.
E.        The result of  the first test shows lack of concentration

Over the last two decades, the use of ICT has been an important topic in education. On the one hand, studies have shown that ICT can enhance teaching and learning outcomes. For example, in science and mathematics education, scholars have documented that the use of ICT can improve students ‘conceptual understanding, problem solving and team working skills. Consequently, most curriculum document state the importance of ICT and encourage school teacher to use them. However, (5)teachers need to be specifically trained in order to integrate ICT in their teaching.
   Schools are known to be resistant to innovation and change. However, the spread of ICT is beginning to affect how teachers teach. One of the current issues about the use of ICT is how it is integrated into the curriculum. The curriculum documents provide arguments for introducing ICT in the school setting. Therefore, schools expect that graduates from teacher education program have   a reasonable knowledge of how to use ICT. However, this may not be the case because most current teachers’ (10)pre service preparation, and subsequent in service courses were designed by using traditional educational technology and settings. Thus, the participants in these courses are not familiar with the processes, interaction patterns, features, and possibilities of teaching learning processes based on ICT.
   The issue becomes complicated because the students’ thinking skills are often weak. Also, they typically lack information literacy skills although they were born in or after 1982. In addition, they belong to be “Net Generation”. Furthermore, they are (15)accustomed to operating in digital in digital environment for communication, information gathering, analysis. The problem is that students do not have to understand how their use of technology affects their habits of learning.
   Effective development of pre-service teachers’ ICT proficiency does not seem to be a direct process, but is the one asking for a careful, complex approach. Firs, a needs assessment is important to find out what ICT skills and knowledge teachers need at schools. Second, designers of teachers education program should know the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ICT  and their (20)attitude toward ICT integration into curriculum. Third, teachers education programs need to consider the two typical arguments that support the ICT use in schools.

79. With the statement ‘One of the current issues about the use ICT is how it is integrated into the curriculum.’ In line 7, the author intends to ...
A.       Emphasize the need for teachers with good literacy in technology
B.       Explore the reasons for including ICT in the curriculum document
C.       Explain the curriculum document for ICT introduction in education
D.       Argue that current teachers already have good knowledge of using ICT
E.        Show that teachers education programs have been running expected ICT curriculum

80. The author’s idea of the relationship between the sue of ICT and learning outcome is analogous with
A.       Vitamin-health
B.       Speed - aeroplane
C.       Harvest-irrigation
D.       Cellphone-crime
E.        Books-intelligence

81. The assumption the author has about teacher education program is that
A.       The programs have introduced a reasonable knowledge of how to use ICT
B.       The programs have found out what ICT skills and knowledge the teachers need
C.       The programs have given materials related to pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ICT
D.       The program were still designed in reference to traditional education technology and settings
E.        The program have participants who are familiar with the processes of technology –mediated educational transactions

82. Which line of the passage illustrate the ideal ICT teacher education programs most effectively
A.       4-5
B.       9-11
C.       14-16
D.       16-17
E.        17-20

   Prior to the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric concentration of naturally occurring greenhouse gases had been relatively stable for 10,000 years. The greenhouse gases include water vapour or moisture, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. As a consequence, the net incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere was roughly balance by net outgoing infrared radiation.
    However, with the advent of fossil fuel-burning plants to support industry, automobile, and the energy demands of modern consumers, as well as the substantial expansion of other human activities including agricultural production, “human began to interfere seriously in the composition of the atmosphere,” says Fred Pearce, by emitting large amount of additional greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have resulted in “radiative forcing”. The increased levels of greenhouse gases result in greater absorption of outgoing infrared radiation. This will eventually increase the temperatures when a portion of this radiation is re-radiated to the Earth’s surface.
    The most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas over the past two centuries has been carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide is primarily attributable to fossil fuel combustion, cement production, and land-use change. Since 1751, over 297 billion metric tons of carbon has been released into atmosphere from anthropogenic sources. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide were approximately 280 parts per million at the start of the  Industrial Revolution in the 1780s. It took a century and a half to reach atmospheric concentration of 315 ppm.
    Approximately 7.1 gigatons of carbon are currently emitted annually by human activities. However, about two gigatons of carbon, or approximately 25 to 30 percent of annual anthropogenic emissions, are absorbed by oceans, with 3.3 gigatons accumulating continuously in the atmosphere. The ocean have absorbed approximately 525 gigatons of carbon dioxide from the  atmosphere over the past 200 years, a rate ten times the natural historical rate. Over the next millenium, it is estimated that the world’s oceans will absorb 90 percent of anthropogenic carbon dioxide currently being released into the atmosphere.

83. What can be inferred from the passage about the current increase of carbon dioxide?
A.       Before  the era of the Industrial Revolution, the atmosphere was relatively free  from CO2
B.       The rate of CO2 absorption by the ocean increased 100% over the last 200 years
C.       Greenhouse effects can be avoided by increasing the outgoing heat from the earth
D.       Human activities with the use of fossil fuels contribute to the increase of carbon dioxide
E.        Carbon is the only contributing gas to increase the greenhouse effect

84. The sentence ‘ This will eventually increase the temperatures when a portion of this radiation is re-rediated to the earth’s surface.’ In line 8-9 is closest in meaning to
A.       Radiation of the earth will heat anything obstructing its way out
B.       Portion radiation returned depends on the temperature of the earth
C.       The earth has natural mechanism to decrease the surface temperature
D.       The atmosphere of the earth   will get warmer when the incoming heat is reflected by the earth
E.        Atmosphere of the earth has the potential  to block the outgoing radiation

85. Which is following reflects the author’s bias about the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
A.       The atmosphere composition in the last 200 years has change
B.       There is an alternative mechanism of decreasing CO2 in the atmosphere
C.       Dominant sources of the increase of greenhouse gases are use of fossil fuels
D.       The Industrial Revolution plays an important role on climate change
E.        Fossil fuels are used for main energy resources

86. In presenting ideas, the author starts by ...
A.       Describing the mechanism of balancing earth’s heat
B.       Giving examples of greenhouse gases in atmosphere
C.       Explaining historical details about the earth’s atmosphere
D.       Accusing industries of the increase of the earth’s heat
E.        Stating the consequence of interfering the atmosphere balance

   Sugar impacts your white blood cells by competing for space in those cells with Vitamin C. Some research in the 1970s discovered that white blood cells need Vitamin C to destroy bacteria viruses. Sugar and Vitamin C are similar in the chemical structure. When you eat sugar, it directly competes for space in your immune cells with Vitamin C. The more sugar in your system, the less Vitamin C can get into your white blood cells. Sugar does not help your immune system fight infection at all, resulting in a weakened defence  from infections.
    Eating more fresh fruits and vegetables is a great way to get immune boosting benefits from Vitamin C and other phytonutrients found in fresh raw foods. The colours produced give you a clue for how they help the immune system. Choose orange fruits and vegetables like carrots to get more beta carotene, the precursor your body turns into Vitamin A. This nutrient helps your immune system by supporting healthy lungs and lymph.
   Do not stress about it if you find it hard to completely throw out the sugar and load up on fresh whole fruits and veggies. Diet changes take time and if you want your new healthy habits to stick, be persistent as you try  switching out  a large salad for that fast food sandwich at lunch. If you normally eat sweet processed food like donuts for breakfast, try replacing it with mixed fresh fruit and see how much better you feel over time. Your taste buds will need a few week to get used to changes in what you are eating. Your body will get over the cravings, which are actually  a symptom  of the deficiencies of empty foods until you have nourished your body well for a time. In the long term, the more fresh whole foods you eat, the more energy you will have and the stronger your immune system will be.
87. What is the author’s attitude toward the topic of the passage?
A.       Considerate
B.       Confident
C.       Persuasive
D.       Objective
E.        Serious

88. The paragraph following the passage will likely talk about ...
A.       Example of fresh food as an alternative diet
B.       Coping with the stress resulting from diet changes
C.       Calculation of energy produced from fresh food
D.       illnesses preventable from eating fresh food
E.        The nearest places to get fresh food

89. The passage can be best summarized as follows
A.       It is hard to replace sugar with fresh fruit and vegetable for daily diet
B.       Changing diet with salads for daily menu will strengthen the body immune system
C.       Vitamin A and C are the most needed vitamins by our body to avoid sugar addiction
D.       Fresh fruits and vegetables can increase vitamin intake to strengthen our immune system
E.        Vitamin C and sugar both taste sweet but vitamin C  contains nutrients needed by our body

90. Based on the passage, it can be hypothesized that our body’s immune system will get stronger if
A.       We replace sugar with low sugar diet
B.       Out diet consists of fresh fruits and vegetables
C.       Our food produces energy to convert nutrients into vitamins
D.       we consume salads  to replace sugar and fast food
E.        We eat low- caloric food
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