Plastic bags are often thought of as free, no-brainer solutions to carry your groceries or to use as trashcan liners. However, research has shown that as a consequence of carefree usage of plastic bags millions of tons of plastic particles __31__ in our seas each year. Reversing this trend and finding ways to maintain both the health of our oceans and the human benefits associated with it are complicated tasks. Most people appreciate and value the importance of the ocean and see marine litter as a global problem. __32__, the challenge is connecting the dots. So many of human behaviors and decisions contribute to this problem, but rarely are there attempts to link their impact to the environment. Behavioral science has been recognized as __33__ to understand drivers of human behavior which support ongoing initiatives to clean up our environments. For instance, behavioral scientists have suggested that the public could become more __34__ if powerful images were carried on everyday products, similar to that already being used on cigarette packaging.

31. . . . .
(A) accumulate
(B) accumulator
(C) accumulation
(D) accumulating
(E) accumulative

32. . . . .
(A) Therefore
(B) In contrast
(C) Also
(D) In other words
(E) After that

33. . . . .
(A) a gap
(B) a cure
(C) an advantage
(D) an alternative
(E) an impediment

34. . . . .
(A) aware
(B) elated
(C) excited
(D) optimistic
(E) interested

Unlike beloved children’s stories, nature is a cruel, hard world that is painted not in watercolors but in blood. A study found that chemicals released by plants as they are eaten can help push caterpillars to cannibalism. Many plants release the chemical methyl jasmonate when stressed or damaged. Getting gnawed on by a caterpillar is stressful, so when the caterpillars start biting, the chemical flare goes up. Other nearby plants sense the flare and start producing their own methyl jasmonate, building a chemical camouflage around their leaves  and stems. Once all the food sources taste terrible, caterpillars turn to the next available meal: each other. Plants with the time to build up a strong defense can make their leaves so unappetizing that caterpillars will start eating each other to get their fill, leaving the plant alone.
Researchers now plan to also look into how insect viruses are transferred during their more carnivorous period. If viruses that harm caterpillars are transferred more easily by cannibalism, that could be a gain for the plants. Not only are their leaves protected from pests, but now those predators are spreading disease amongst themselves, reducing the herbivore population further. Interestingly enough, cannibalism can serve some important functions among these herbivores. Eating each other literally takes the competition out of the food chain, and keeps the surviving population strong in a time when food might be scarce. Therefore, we should not be too quick to judge these fuzzy little cannibals. It’s a bug eat bug world out there.

35. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE according to the text?
(A) Stress may save plants from being consumed.
(B) Plants can manipulate their own perception of taste.
(C) Under constraints, plants can alter their predator’s appetite.
(D) Cannibalism helps maintain food supply in times of need.
(E) The chemical methyl jasmonate drives caterpillars away from their natural food.

36. The topic of this passage is. . . .
(A) Caterpillars’ Consumption Behavior
(B) Cannibalism and Its Effect on Caterpillars
(C) The Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on Insects
(D) Plant’s Defense Mechanism against Herbivores
(E) The Cause and Effect of Cannibalism Among Caterpillars

37. It can be inferred from the text that. . . .
(A) cannibalism may balance the supply and demand for food
(B) viruses are easily transferred by means of cannibalism
(C) the chemicals decrease the caterpillars’ hunger for food
(D) cannibalism is a natural phenomenon among herbivores
(E) other bugs can also turn cannibalistic towards each other

38. The purpose of this passage is to. . . .
(A) convince readers that nature is harsh in reality
(B) educate readers not to judge herbivores hastily
(C) describe the effect of cannibalism among plant-eating animals
(D) explain how caterpillars can behave Uncharacteristically
(E) inform the readers that cannibalism among herbivores is normal

39. The tone of this passage is. . . .
(A) critical
(B) amused
(C) objective
(D) outraged
(E) humorous

There’s a certain sinking feeling one gets when thinking of the perfect thing to say just a moment too late. There is no English word to express this feeling, but the French have the term l’esprit de l’escalier for this very phenomenon. The English language also lacks the word to describe the binge eating that follows an emotional blow, but the Germans have kummerspeck to do just that. If we had the Swedish word lagom, the English explanation of Goldilocks’ perfectly temperate soup __40__a lot more accurate.
__41__English speakers are limited in their choice of words surprises many non-native English speakers. There are many words that English speakers don’t have. Sometimes Anglophones take from other languages, but often, we have to find a way around a specific feeling or emotion that doesn’t have its own word. The reason why we borrow words like savoir faire from French is because that word did not culturally evolve as part of our language. Speaking different languages means you get different frames and metaphors. You’re also learning the culture of the language so you get not only different words, but also different types of words.
     However, the benefits of speaking multiple languages extend past just having access to different words, concepts, metaphors, and frames. Multilingualism has __43__. Multilinguals tend to score better on standardized tests, especially in math, reading, and vocabulary. They are better at remembering lists or sequences due to intensive learning of grammatical rules and vocabulary. They are more perceptive to their surroundings and therefore better at focusing on important information while __44__misleading information.

40. . . . .
(A) may be
(B) will be
(C) should be
(D) will have been
(E) could have been

41. . . . .
(A) If
(B) Why
(C) That
(D) When
(E) Whether

42. The phrase "find a way around" in the second paragraph means. . . .
(A) avoid the main topic
(B) look in the wrong place
(C) ask what someone is thinking
(D) be very familiar with an activity
(E) discover how to deal with something

43. . . . .
(A) side effects of an incredible array
(B) incredible side effects of an array
(C) incredible effects of an array side
(D) an incredible side array of effects
(E) an array of incredible side effects

44. . . . .
(A) putting off
(B) pulling over
(C) putting out
(D) weeding out
(E) blocking out

45. The sentence "Thus, a multilingual education is a worthwhile investment of time." should be....
(A) the last sentence of paragraph 1
(B) the first sentence of paragraph 2
(C) the last sentence of paragraph 2
(D) the first sentence of paragraph 3
(E) the last sentence of paragraph 3
Next Post »