Plastic bags are often thought of as free, no-brainer solutions to carry your groceries or to use as trashcan liners. However, research has shown that as a consequence of carefree usage of plastic bags millions of tons of plastic particles __31__ in our seas each year. Reversing this trend and finding ways to maintain both the health of our oceans and the human benefits associated with it are complicated tasks. Most people appreciate and value the importance of the ocean and see marine litter as a global problem.__32__, the challenge is connecting the dots. So many of human behaviors and decisions contribute to this problem, but rarely are there attempts to link their impact to the environment. Behavioral science has been recognized as __33__ to understand drivers of human behavior which support ongoing initiatives to clean up our environments. For instance, behavioral scientists have suggested that the public could become more __34__ if powerful images were carried on everyday products, similar to that already being used on cigarette packaging.

31. . . . .
(A) accumulate
(B) accumulator
(C) accumulation
(D) accumulating
(E) accumulative

32. . . . .
(A) Therefore
(B) In contrast
(C) Also
(D) In other words
(E) After that

33. . . . .
(A) a gap
(B) a cure
(C) an advantage
(D) an alternative
(E) an impediment

34. . . . .
(A) aware
(B) elated
(C) excited
(D) optimistic
(E) interested

Despite their advantages, technological advancements have led to the polarization of the labor market. While middle-skill jobs become increasingly automated, high-skill jobs that require a combination of cognitive skills, creative acumen and leadership expertise have not been affected. Similarly, low-skill jobs that require customer service have been drastically changed by automated systems. Therefore, it is the low-class and middle-skill routine occupations that have been decimated by the technological revolution.
As low-skill and middle-skill opportunities shrink, giving rise to high jobs, wages also become either high or low. This disparity has already impacted the economy and will continue to change the labor market’s landscape. Although it naturally impacts current employees, students and job-seekers should also take heed of the patterns that have emerged. Since the jobs that are harder to automate involve creativity, cognition and social skills, job-seekers should develop these intangible qualities to make themselves more valuable to potential employers.
The medical field has also been impacted by automated machines. Many diagnostic tests and surgical tools have become automated by complex machines and programs. However, the human touch in the medical field is essential as it ensures that a patient is being treated as a human instead of just as a body. A nurse’s interaction with his or her patients is invaluable and impossible to effectively replicate. Similarly, while machines can assist with tasks before, during, and after a surgery, a machine cannot replace a skilled human surgeon since it lacks intuitions and instincts.

35. The following are questions that the passage tries to address EXCEPT. . . .
(A) Who is affected by the automation of jobs?
(B) How has the labor market become polarized?
(C) What is the impact of automation to wage conditions?
(D) How can the government balance automation and human labor?
(E) Why is human touch irreplaceable in the medical field?

36. What can be inferred about high-skill jobs?
(A) There is a decline in vacancy.
(B) They are at great risk for automation.
(C) They require more cognitive skills than social skills.
(D) They play a role in the automation of low-skill and middle-class jobs.
(E) They are relatively safe from being automated in the labor market.

37. What is the best title for the passage?
(A) The Future of Healthcare
(B) Automation and the Future of Work
(C) The Impacts of Technology on Living Standards
(D) Unemployment due to Technological Advancements
(E) Technology and the Productivity of Low-Skill and Middle-Skill Jobs

38. The author’s purpose is to. . .
(A) define the term labor automation
(B) advocate the automation of high-skill jobs
(C) elaborate the view that labor automation is harmful
(D) describe the drawbacks of labor automation
(E) explain the effects of automated machines to the job Market

39. What is the tone of the passage?
(A) Outraged
(B) Sarcastic
(C) Persuasive
(D) Introspective
(E) Objective

The discovery of gold nuggets in the Sacramento Valley in early 1848 sparked the Gold Rush, arguably one of the most noteworthy events to shape American history during the first half of the ninetieth century.__40__, thousands of prospective gold miners traveled by sea or over land to San Francisco and the surrounding area. By the end of 1849, the non-native population of the California territory was some 100,000 (compared with the pre-1848 figure of less than 1,000). A total of 2 billion dollars’ worth of precious metal __41__ from the area during the Gold Rush, which peaked in 1852.
Throughout 1849, people around the United States (mostly men) borrowed money, mortgaged their property or spent their life savings to make the arduous journey to California. In pursuit of the kind of wealth they had never dreamed of, they left their families and hometowns. In turn, women left behind took on new responsibilities such as running farms or businesses and caring for their children alone. Thousands of would-be gold miners, known as ’49ers, traveled overland across the mountains or by sea, sailing to Panama or even around Cape Horn, the southernmost point of South America.
To accommodate the needs of the ’49ers, gold mining towns had sprung up all over the region, complete with shops, saloons, brothels and other businesses seeking to make their own Gold Rush fortune. The overcrowded chaos of the mining camps and towns __43__ ever more lawless, including rampant banditry, gambling, prostitution and violence.
After 1850, the surface gold in California largely disappeared. Though gold mining continued throughout the 1850s, it had reached its peak by 1852, when some eighty-one million dollars was pulled from the ground. After that year, the total take__44__. Settlement in California continued, however, and by the end of the decade the state’s population was 380,000.

 40. . . . .
(A) As the discovery of news spread
(B) As of the discovery news spread
(C) As news of the discovery spread
(D) Spread as news of the discovery
(E) The news as spread of discovery

41. . . . .
(A) extracted
(B) was to extract
(C) was extracted
(D) was extracting
(E) was to be extracted

42. The italic phrase took on in paragraph 2 means. . . .
(A) shared
(B) shouldered
(C) declined
(D) established
(E) volunteered

43. . . . .
(A) grow
(B) grew
(C) has grown
(D) were growing
(E) would have grown

44. . . . .
(A) reached a peak
(B) took a soar
(C) became surprising
(D) remained lucrative
(E) declined gradually

45. This sentence “San Francisco, for its part, developed a bustling economy and became the central metropolis of the new frontier.” should be. . . .
(A) the last sentence of paragraph 1
(B) the second sentence of paragraph 2
(C) the last sentence of paragraph 2
(D) the last sentence of paragraph 3
(E) the second sentence of paragraph 4
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