I. The text below has incomplete sentences. Choose one word or phrase from each number that best completes the sentences.

     Attitude is an opinion, belief of value judgement which is based on experience of shared knowledge. (41)_____ dispositions either develop through direct experience or are learned from others through socialization. The study of attitudes is particularly important when (42) ______ stereotypes, bias, prejudice, and survey material. With particular reference to attitudes about people, it is important to recognize how often we display attitude towards new groups (43) ______, tough and cynical, without ever having met one. In this sense, the process (45) _______ occurs, where an attitude extends from specific instances within a category to include all members of that category.
     Attitudes can be said to have three main components: the cognitive of intellectual (the degree to which we act out that which we know and feel). In this way, a football supporter can have an extensive knowledge of his or her team’s history, a liking of the game, and will have attended some fixtures. It is (46) _____ intellectual and affective qualities because they can usually be inferred only from the behavioral component. (47) _____ often give replies which they think conform to others’ expectation of them, and which are therefore socially acceptable. In this way respondents to attitude tests may well provide contrive answers (48) _____ this possibility may questionnaires ask seemingly indirect questions, (49) ______ people will not realize the actual purpose of the test, and (50) _____ ‘real’ and spontaneous answer.
          Taken from O’Sullivan, et al. (1994). Key Concepts in Communication and Cultural Studies Routledge.

41. ...
A. These
B. Those
C. The
D. This
E. That

42. ....
A. they assess
B. to assess
C. assessed
D. having assessed
E. assessing

43. ....
A. with which
B. in that
C. which
D. for which
E. whom

44. ....
A. travelled well
B. well-travelled
C. travelling well
D. least-travelled
E. and travelled well

45. ....
A. generally
B. of generality
C. in generalizing
D. in general
E. of generalization

46. ....
A. descriptively difficult
B. difficult in describing
C. difficult to describe
D. difficult to describing
E. describing the difficulty of

47. ....
A. People face questionnaires when
B. Questionnaires people face
C. When people are faced with questionnaires
D. When faced with questionnaires, people
E. When people face questionnaires

48. ....
A. If because
B. In terms of
C. Despite
D. Although
E. Because of

49. ....
A. in the hope
B. the hope is that
C. with the hope that
D. in the hope that
E. that in the hope

50. ....
A. has therefore provided
B. are therefore provided that
C. will therefore provide
D. therefore providing
E. therefore will have provided

II. Study the text and choose the best answer to the questions that follow.

     In a unique study, researchers at Lund University in Sweden have mapped the origins of migratory birds. They used the results to investigate and discover major differences in the immune systems of sedentary and migratory birds. The researchers conclude that migratory species benefit from leaving tropical areas when it is time to raise their young—as moving away from diseases in the tropics enables them to survive with a less costly immune system.
    Analysing the genealogy of over 1,300 song bird species, passerines, enabled the researchers to establish that both sedentary bird, which do not leave northern Europe in the winter, and migratory birds, which breed in Europe but spend the winter close to the equator, originate from Africa. The researchers then went on to study the immune system in three different groups: sedentary birds in tropical Africa, European sedentary birds, and migratory birds, Their findings show that African sedentary birds have a more varied and extensive immune system than that of both European sedentary birds and migratory birds.
     Evolution has quite simply ensured that bird species migrating to Europe were equipped with a much less variable immune system, as Europe has far fewer diseases than the tropics. The African sedentary species probably need a more advanced immune system to deal with the recher flora of pathogens to which they are exposed. What really surprised the researchers was that the immune system of migratory birds showed a similarly low variation to that of European sedentary birds. After all, migratory birds do not only need to resist diseases in Europe, but also during their migration and in the tropics
     To explain the surprising result, the researchers purpose the idea that the costs associated with a strong and complex immune system could be much higher than anyone previously thought. Examples of these costs could be autoimmunity and other immune system diseases such as chronic inflammation.
   Despite the migratory birds having to deal with pathogens both in Europe an tropical Africa, they have thus lost much of the variation and complexity in their immune system compared to their African ancestors, According to the researchers, this indicates that dealing with pathogens is most difficult for the birds the first time they ate exposed to them. For migratory birds, this happens in Europe where they raise their young and there are not as many different pathogens.
   One of the researchers explained that when the migratory birds bred, they had moved away from many diseases and therefore did not need an immune system that was equally varied. Another advantage was that the risk of damage caused by the immune system dropped considerably if the immune system was less complex.
     All vertebrates, including human beings, have an immune system built up in a similar way to that of birds. The Lund biologists therefore believe their findings could also be significant in a broader perspective.
          Adapted from

51. What is the topic of the text?
A. The diseases of migratory and sedentary birds
B. The complexity of the immune system of migratory birds
C. The origins of migratory and sedentary birds
D. How the immune system of birds responds to diseases
E. How the immune system of birds change as they migrate

52. How does the word “they” in line 1 refer to?
A. the origins
B. researchers
C. migratory birds
D. immune systems
E. major differences
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53. It is implied in paragraph two that
A. migratory birds tend to stay longer near the equator.
B. European an African sedentary birds are of the same species.
C. Europe sedentary birds return to Africa to raise their young.
D. European sedentary birds fly over the equator.
E. migratory birds live near the equator before they move and breed.

54. The word “show” in line 9 could be best replaced by which of the following?
A. view
B. appear
C. indicate
D. express
E. perform
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55. Which of the following is TRUE according of the text?
A. The migratory birds breeding in Europe come from the equator.
B. The immune systems of African sedentary birds and European sedentary birds are different.
C. African sedentary birds are exposed to less bacteria
D. Migratory birds need a more extensive immune system when they breed.
E. Europe has a large number of flora pathogens.

56. The text states all of the following EXCEPT
A. the migratory birds have to cope with pathogens in two regions
B. chronic inflammation is an example of the cost associated to advanced immune system
C. the immune system of the ancestors of migratory birds was more advance than that of the migratory birds
D. immune system diseases are more dangerous than pathogens
E. migratory birds raise their offspring in a region with fewer disease

57. Why does the author mention “what really surprised the researchers” in lines 13-14?
A. To suggest that the researchers failed in achieving their objectives
B. To hint that the researchers had predicated to findings
C. To emphasize that the research finding were quite unexpected
D. To indicate that the findings were undesirable
E. To show that the researcher were happy with the findings
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58. The word “complex” in line 27 is closest in meaning to
A. mixed
B. rigid
C. deep
D. intricate
E. difficult
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59. What can be inferred from the text?
A. People probably have different immune systems depending on where they live.
B. The human immune system can be studied based on that of birds.
C. Migratory birds can affect human immune system.
D. Human beings learn how to deal with diseases from migratory birds.
E. People should migrate to boost their immune system.

60. Which two groups of birds have a similar immune system?
A. Migratory bird and European sedentary birds
B. African sedentary birds and migratory birds
C. European sedentary bird and African
D. Migratory birds and their ancestors
E. European sedentary birds and the ancestors of the migratory birds
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