There  appears to be increasing number of children who specialize in a single sport at an early age. The lure of a college scholarsip of a professional career can motivate young athletes to commit to specialized training regimens at an early age. However, the American Academy of Pediatric recommends avoiding specializing in one sport before puberty.
     Once puberty begins, both boys and girls go through their adolescent growth spurt (AGS). The change and the age at which they occur can have an impact on a child’s sport perfomance. Going through this can have a significant impact on athletic perfomance in both positive and negative ways. Increases in body size hormones, and muscle strengh can improve athletic perfomance. Nevertheless, there may be temporary decline in balance skills and body control during the AGS. Quick increases in height and weight affect the body’s center of gravity. Sometimes, the brain needs to adjust to this heigher observation point. As s result, a teen may seem a little clumsy.
     This phase is especially noticeable in sports that require goods balance and body control (e.g. figure skating, diving, gymnastics, basketball). In addition, longer arms and legs can affect throwing any type of ball, hitting with a bat, catching with a glove, or swimming and jumping. Coaches that ate aware of the AGS can help reduce athletic awkwardness by incorporating specific aspects of training onto practice sessions.

31. The word “lure” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ....
A. plan
B. illusion
C. chance
D. appeal
E. thought

32. The word “this” in paragraph 2 refers to ...
A. age
B. impact
C. puberty
D. change
E. occurrence

33. Which sentence is closest in meaning to the last sentence in paragraph 3?
A. By designing training founded on the knowledge of AGS, trainers be more aware of possible difficulties in sports.
B. With practice that prevents children from performing awkwardly, trainers can assist children through this growth phase.
C. To help children perform with more ease, trainers should consider the effects of puberty when designing a training routine.
D. Without considering the physical changes undergone by children, trainers cannot prevent them form having difficulties when training.
E. Since identifying potential problems during children’s phase of AGS in necessary to eliminate cluminess, trainers can do this before training begins.

34. The most appropriate title for this passage is ...
A. Adolescent Growth Spurt and Sport
B. Effects of  Puberty on Sports Performance
C. The Rising Popularity of Sport among Children
D. The Impact of Poor Balance and Body Control
E. The Side Effect of Specializing in Sport on Children

        The old myths about clevet animals may have been closer to the truth than science has been for much of its history. Until fairly recently, animals were considered to be unthinking machines and humans the only intelligent species. However, aided by new cognition tests that allow elephants to show.their intelligence, scientists have discovered human and elephant intelligence have much in common.
        Most contemporary ethologists view the the elephants as one of the world’s most intelligent animals. With a mass of just over 5 kg, an elephant’s brain has more mass than that of any other land animal. In addition, elephants have a total of 300 billion nourons. Elephant brains are similar to human’s in terms of general connectivity and areas. The elephant cortex has as many neurons as a human brain.
        Moreover, elephants manifest a wide variety of behaviors, including those associated with self-awareness, altruism, memory and communication. It has been proven scientifically that elephants are self-aware. In one study an elephant called Happy would touch a white cross painted on her forehead, a test used to test self-awareness in childern, She could only see it in a mirror and understood that she was looking at  a reflection of herself.
            Elephants also practice altruism. There is a famous story of an Indian elephant called Chanrasekharan, Who was working lifting poles off a truck as it moved along, and placing them in holes dug in the ground, When Chandrasekharan came to one hole he refused to put the log in. Eventually the Mahout checked and discovered a dog sleeping in it. Only when the dog was gone would Chandrasekharan put the pole in.
          Finally, elephants do having long memories. They eat an incredible variety of food and need to cover large distances to ger it. They need to know where to go at what time of year. They learn this and remember it. Also, they have complex communication and societies, and they need to remember all the different individuals’ voices and smells in order to be socially adapt.

35. What is the tone of the passage?
A. Playful
B. Critical
C. Objective
D. Empathic
E. Indifferent

36. All of the following statements about elephant intelligent are true EXCEPT.
A. Elephants like helping other animals.
B. Elephants have strong memory and cognition.
C. Like human being, elephants have self-awareness.
D. Elephant’s brain has less mass than that of other mammals.
E. Elephant intelligence shares some similarities with human intelligence.

37. What can be infered from this passage?
A. It is impossible for elephants to have self-awareness.
B. Elephant brain differ from that of humans in many ways.
C. Elephants are the only intelligent animal on this planet.
D. Elephants in general do not care about their well-being.
E. Not too long ago, many people thought that animals did not have the ability to think.

38. This passage would most likely be found in ...
A. sn article about ancient mythology
B. a journal about artificial intelligence
C. a popular article about science and nature
D. a book about communication among animals
E. a magazine about the minds of human and animal

39. The author’s main purpose in the second paragraph is to ...
A. define animal intelligence
B. persuade readers to love and protect elephants
C. provide an explanation of elephants’ intelligence
D. inform readers about the findings of several research
E. contrast elephant intelligence with human intelligence

         Living on an island can have strange effects. On Flores in Indonesia, extinct elephants weighed on more than large hog, but rats grew as bog  as cats. These ate examples of the island effect, which holds that when food and predators are scarce, big animals shrink and little ones grow. Still, no one is sure whether the same rule explains the most famous example of drawing of  Flores: the add extinct hominin called the hobbit, which_40_60,000 to 100,000 years ago and stood about a meter tall.
        Now, genetic evidence from modern pygmies or unusually short people on Flores-who are unrelated to the hobbit-confirms that humans, too, are subject to so-called island dwarfing. Flores pygmies differ from their closest relatives on New Guinea and in East Asia in carrying more gene variants that promote short stature. The genetic differences testify to recent evolution, the island rula at work, and they imply that same force gave the hobbit its short stature.
        To explore the pygmies’ ancestry, a team of researchers studied the Rampasasa pygmies of Flores, who were on average just 145 centimeters tall. They gathered spit and blood from 34 people and_41_The team found no trace of archaic DNA that could be from the hobbit. Instead, the pygmies were_42_The DNA suggested that their ancestors came to Flores in several waves: in the past 50,000 years or so, when modern humans first reached Melanesia; and in the past 5000 years, when settlers came from both East Asia and New Guinea.
         The DNA also reflects an enviromental shift. It suggests the pygmies’ ancestors underwent a big shift in diet after reaching Flores, perhaps eating paymy elephant of marine foods. The pygmies’ DNA is also rich in alleles that_43_to short stature. Other East Asians have the same alleles, but at mujch lower frequencies.
         The discovered fits with a recent study suggesting evolution was also in favor of short stature in people on the Andaman islands. Such selection on islands boosts the theory that the hobbit, too, was once a taller species, who dwindled in height over millennia on Flores.

40. .....
A. lived
B. had lived
C. was living
D. were living
E. had been living

41. .....
A. measured their head circumferences.
B. looked for causes of dwarfism.
C. analyzed their health histories
D. traced back their lineage
E. extracted their DNA.

42. .....
A. closely related East Asian to most other.
B. most closely related to other East Asians.
C. to most other closely related East Asians.
D. other East Asians closely related to most.
E. East Asians most closely relate to other.

43. .....
A. links
B. linked
C. linking
D. are linked
E. are linking

44. The italic pharse in the last paragraph means ....
A. eased
B. endorsed
C. approved
D. supported
E. confirmed

45. The sentence “This suggests natural selection favored exisiting genes for shortness while the pygmies’ ancestors were on Flores.” Should be ...
A. the last sentence of paragraph 1
B. the last sentence of paragraph 2
C. the last sentence of paragraph 3
D. the last sentence of paragraph 4
E. the last sentence of paragraph 5
Next Post »