_______________ To some extent the comparison is apt, and to a degree it is helpful in understanding what an actor does when he is creating and performing a role. With his kings and queens, his cowboys and Indians, or his spacemen, the child projects himself into a make-believe world. From his imagination—triggered by his own experience, limited though it may be—he provides circumstances of time, place, and relationships between the characters. He then proceeds to behave, that is, to speak and to perform physical actions, in a manner that he believes is appropriate to these circumstances. If the game is to prove interesting, these circumstances must provide a reason for carrying out the actions. He has to rescue the princess from the enchanted castle, or rid the town of dangerous bandits, or get his spaceship into orbit without being detected by the enemy. A child with imagination can become involved in such a game to the extent that it has for him a degree of reality, and he may become resentful of adults who intrude into his make-believe world.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 41 sampai nomor 42.

41. The paragraph should begin with ____
(A) Children are similar to excellent actors.
(B) Artists are similar to children.
(C) Acting is often compared to children’s make-believe games.
(D) Creativity and games are the foundation of acting.
(E) Actors and children have many things in common.

42. The paragraph following the above most likely discusses _____.
(A) children’s vast imagination
(B) the privacy of make-believe world of children
(C) adults’ resentful reaction toward children’s imagination
(D) examples of games which may be taken as reality by children
(E) how to restrict children’s imagination

The unmistakable buzz of a bumblebee is one of the quintessential sounds of British summertime. However, this slender sound and faint utterance is under threat because bumblebees are in crisis. Of the 25 species native to Britain, three have already been declared extinct, five are designated UK Biodiversity Action Plan priority species, and many more have undergone major range contractions. The great yellow bumblebee, Bombus distinguendus, for example, is now restricted to northern Scotland, Orkney and the Hebrides, and the shrill carder bee, Bombus sylvarum, which was once common throughout southern Britain, now exists only in seven small groups. In addition, as these populations become more isolated they can become inbred, which increases the risk of further extinctions.
At the end of summer all the bumblebees in a colony die, apart from the virgin queens who mate and then leave the nest to hibernate over winter. In the spring a queen will make a new nest, lay eggs and then raise the first batch of workers. This annual cycle depends on there being enough pollen and nectar to sustain the queen as she establishes her nest and team of workers as the colony grows. Pollen is a protein-rich fuel that is key to helping over-wintered queens to kickstart their reproductive systems ready and for the development of larvae. Nectar, on the other hand, is a sugar-rich fuel which is converted to honey to feed adult bees. The bees make honey by adding to the nectar in their honey sacs an enzyme called invertase, which converts sucrose sugars to a mixture of glucose and fructose. Once the workers are developed, they take over the foraging and the queen concentrates on laying eggs. Later in the year, if the colony has been successful and reaches a large enough size, the queen will produce male eggs and some female eggs are raised as new queens.
A lack of resources is thought to be the critical factor that is affecting bumblebee populations, and it is related to the loss of wild flowers, both in the countryside and in vast areas of suburban gardens. The biggest impact has been the availability of food and drink, in particular the continuity of supplies throughout the colony cycle. Although nectar is available from a wide range of plants, the bees can be much more choosy about where they collect pollen from, sometimes restricting this to very few flowering plants. In Scotland, overwintered queens of the declining and beautiful bilberry bumblebee focus on bilberry in spring. Other species may focus on legumes such as red clover and bird’s-foot trefoil. Sadly, because the UK has lost 98% of its flower-rich grasslands, this has been devastating for some bumblebee species.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 43 sampai nomor 47.

43. What is the best title of the passage?
(A) The Bumblebees’ Life Cycle
(B) The Different Bumblebee Species
(C) A Drop in Bumblebees Population
(D) The Responsibilities of a Bumblebee Queen
(E) The Impacts of the Loss of the UK’s Grasslands

44. What can be inferred from the passage about the lifecycle of bumblebees?
(A) The new workers are brought up by the male bees.
(B) Bumblebees hibernate throughout winter to survive.
(C) The virgin queens survive the summer and then continue the reproduction.
(D) All the bumblebees in a colony die when summer ends.
(E) The continuation of the lifecycle depends on the skill of the queens in collecting food.

45. The word ’undergone’ in line 4 can best be replaced by ____.
(A) dealt with
(B) confronted
(C) estimated
(D) experienced
(E) coped with

46. Which of the following statements about the passage is FALSE?
(A) When the colony has been thriving and reached a sufficient size, the queen will lay male eggs.
(B) Some female eggs are laid to produce new queen bees.
(C) The declining population of bumblebees has been attributed to the inadequate food resource.
(D) Nectar and pollen are still widely available even for the choosy species of bumblebees.
(E) A large percentage of the UK area has lost its ability to supply food for bumblebees.

47. Why did the writer mention the queens of bilberry bumblebee?
(A) To describe how a bumblebee may look like
(B) To give example of bees which can survive the winter
(C) To show one species of bees whose food resource is declining
(D) To give an example of a species of bumblebees which is declining
(E) To give an example of bees which are very selective about source of pollen

Bungee jumping might seem frightening. But it is a very safe __(48)__ if you go to a well-established bungee jump company. People who work for bungee operators usually have a great deal of training and experience. They use very strong and carefully made rubber ropes. They choose a rope based on the jumper’s body weight. This is so they can
manage how much the rope stretches __(49)__ the person falls. The rope that is attached through a harness device tied around the jumper’s ankles. Often, operators use a body harness as well. This is so that you have twice the protection in case one harness breaks. Good bungee operators make sure the __(50)__ is in excellent condition. They should also do several checks to make sure all ropes, harnesses and ties are correctly attached. It is important to remember that this sport is not safe for everyone. People who have high blood pressure or a heart condition __(51)__ try jumping. People with back or knee injuries or who suffer from epilepsy should also avoid this sport. And remember, __(52)__ you do not feel like experiencing it yourself, you can always watch other people jump.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 48 sampai nomor 52.

48. ...
(A) actor
(B) action
(C) activator
(D) activity
(E) activation

49. ...
(A) when
(B) unless
(C) after
(D) before
(E) so that

50. ...
(A) thing
(B) equipment
(C) machine
(D) tool
(E) utensil

51. ...
(A) don’t have to
(B) would rather not
(C) should not
(D) cannot
(E) might not

52. ...
(A) if
(B) unless
(C) after
(D) despite
(E) whether

The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. It is an important issue because it __(54)__ fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife.
It has been argued that dolphin parks provide the only opportunity for much of the public to see marine mammals (Smith, 1992). Most Australians, so this argument goes, live in cities and never get to see these animals. It is claimed that marine parks allow the average Australian to appreciate our marine wildlife. However, as Smith states, dolphins, whales and seals can be viewed in the wild at a number of places on the Australian coast. In fact, there are more places where they can be seen in the wild than places where they can be seen in captivity. Moreover, most Australians would have to travel less to get to these locations than they would have to get to the marine parks on the Gold Coast. In addition, places where there are wild marine mammals do not charge an exorbitant entry fee - __(56)__ free
Dr Alison Lane, the director of the Cairns Marine Science Institute, contends __(57)__ we need marine parks for scientific research (The Age, 19.2.93). She argues that much of our knowledge of marine mammals comes from studies which were undertaken at marine parks. The knowledge which is obtained at marine parks, so this argument goes, can be useful for planning for __(58)__. However, as Jones (1991) explains, park research is only useful for understanding captive animals and is not useful for learning about animals in the wild. Dolphin and whale biology changes in marine park conditions. Their diets are different, they have significantly lower life spans and they are __(59)__. In addition, marine mammals in dolphin parks are trained and this means that their patterns of social behaviour are changed. Therefore, research __(60)__ at marine parks is generally not reliable.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 53 sampai nomor 60

53. This sentence "A variety of different arguments have been put forward about this issue." should be ....
(A) the first sentence of paragraph 1
(B) the last sentence of paragraph 1
(C) the last sentence of paragraph 2
(D) the first sentence of paragraph 3
(E) the last sentence of paragraph 3

54. ....
(A) has concerned
(B) is concerning
(C) will concern
(D) concerns
(E) concerned

55. The word ’can’ in paragraph 2 is used to express ....
(A) possibility
(B) ability
(C) certainty
(D) advice
(E) permission

56. ....
(A) it is
(B) we are
(C) they are
(D) others are
(E) one is

57. ....
(A) how
(B) why
(C) when
(D) where
(E) that

58. ....
(A) the mammal conservation of marine species
(B) the conservation of marine mammal species
(C) the mammal marine species conservation
(D) the species conservation of marine mammal
(E) the conservation from the species of marine Mammal

59. ....
(A) more prone to disease
(B) more immune to medicine
(C) more resistant to natural food
(D) more affected by weather changes
(E) more touched by different social behaviour

60. ....
(A) undertakes
(B) undertaking
(C) undertaken
(D) to undertake
(E) to be undertaking
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