The real reasons why bombs were dropped on two heavily-populated cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, are not altogether clear. A number of people in 1944 and early 1945 argued that the use of nuclear weapons would be unnecessary, since American Intelligence was aware that some of the most powerful and influential people in Japan had already realized that the war was lost, and wanted to negotiate a Japanese surrender. It was also argued that, since Japan has few natural resources, a blockade by the American navy would force it to surrender within a few weeks, and the use of nuclear weapons would thus prove unnecessary. If a demonstration of force was required to end the war, a bomb could be dropped over an unpopulated area like a desert, in front of Japanese observers, or over an area of low population inside Japan, such as a forest. Opting for this course of action might minimize the loss of further lives on all sides, while the power of nuclear weapons would still be adequately demonstrated.

 41. The topic of the passage is ____.
(A) The unnecessary use of nuclear bombs in Japan by America
(B) The reasons why Americans dropped nuclear bombs in Japan
(C) Minimizing the loss of life when Americans used nuclear weapons
(D) Force demonstration by the American Navy to end World War II
(E) Japanese loss and American victory in Asia duringWorld War II

42. The preceding paragraph discusses ________.
(A) The creation of nuclear weapon
(B) Loss and gain in war
(C) The demonstration of force in Japan
(D) The bombing of Japan
(E) The reasons why Americans were involved in war

Unlike organized sports, what is generally called recreation in the United States is not expected to encourage competition. For this reason, it is more spontaneous and serves the individual’s needs beyond the competitive world of work. Nevertheless, much can be learned about the values of Americans from an examination of kinds of recreation in which they engage.
Many Americans prefer recreation that requires a high level of physical activity. This is true of the three fastest growing adult recreational sports: jogging or running, tennis, and snow skiing. It would seem that Americans carry over their belief in hard work into their world of play and recreation. The well-known expression “we like to work hard and play hard” is an example of this philosophy. What began in the 1970s as the “physical fitness craze” has become a way of life for many. A number of people regularly work out at sports clubs – lifting weight, swimming, playing squash or racquetball, participating in aerobic exercise classes, or using bikes, treadmills, rowing machines, or stair-steppers. Long distance marathon races are so popular that the organizers often have to limit the number of people who can participate. In addition to the famous Boston and New York marathons, there are races in many other cities and even in small towns, drawing from several hundred to as many as 80,000 participants. Few of the people expect to win – most just want to finish the race. The races are usually open to all, young and old alike, even those in wheelchairs.
The high level of physical activity enjoyed by many Americans at play has led to the observation that Americans ave difficulty relaxing, even in their leisure time. Yet the people who enjoy these physical activities often say that they find them very relaxing mentally because the activity is so different from the kind of activity they must do in the world of work, often indoor office work involving mind rather than body.

 43. An appropriate title for this passage is ______.
(A) Recreation as a Hobby for Americans
(B) The American Philosophy of Life
(C) Recreation for Self-Improvement
(D) The American Philosophy of Recreation
(E) Recreation: A Popular Sport in the US.

44. What can be inferred from the well-known expression “we like to work hard and play hard”?
(A) Americans always do everything with maximal physical effort.
(B) Every aspect of American life involves physical and mental activities.
(C) Because of the demands of their work, Americans have no time to relax.
(D) Americans believe enjoying leisure time is as important as working hard.
(E) Americans are likely to balance physical and mental needs with serious effort.

45. Why does the writer say that Americans never seem to relax?
(A) Americanswork so hard, they don’t have leisure time.
(B) Americans believe they must do everything seriously.
(C) Americans like recreation involving high physical activity.
(D) Americans spend a lot of their time working in the office.
(E) Americans are crazy about high physical activities.

46. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?
(A) Americans who have competitive jobs prefer sports that are competitive too.
(B) What Americans do for recreation reflects what they believe is important in life.
(C) The "physical fitness craze" was a short-lived American phenomenon of the 1970s.
(D) Long distance marathon races attract mostly people living in urban areas.
(E) Being so used to working hard, American have difficulty getting involved in leisure activities.

47. This text is probably found in ______.
(A) an advertisement of health care
(B) an article in a scientific journal
(C) an article on American lifestyle
(D) an article in a medical journal
(E) a tourism guide book

The Internet, a global network of networks, connects over twenty millions users each day in ___ 48 ___ fifty countries worldwide to more than thirty million computers. With a thousand new computers being added each day, the ___ 49 ___ for scholarship as well as international-related research is clear : the very nature of the Internet creates an environment in which information is shared with colleagues in cross- ___ 50 ___ research throughout the globe. The Internet’s interactive nature often plays a ___ 51 ___ role in the discussion of original results or findings, providing a venue in which scholars from around the world can participate in the reassessing and even the shaping of information in longer and more cohesive whole. ___ 52 ___ much of the information being shared has a scholarly component, the opportunity for professionals to learn from others is enormous.

48. ...
(A) excessively
(B) normally
(C) approximately
(D) implicitly
(E) entirely

49. ...
(A) imply
(B) implied
(C) implicate
(D) impliedly
(E) implication

50. ...
(A) disciplinary
(B) sectional
(C) current
(D) bred
(E) border

51. ...
(A) form
(B) format
(C) formational
(D) formative
(E) formatively

52. ...
(A) Until
(B) Since
(C) After
(D) Therefore
(E) Besides

53. Santi: How was the food in that restaurant? I heard it cost a fortune.
Budi: ______
(A) I agree with you absolutely!
(B) I was fortunate to eat in that restaurant.
(C) The food was great and so was the price.
(D) The food was okay, but I had barely enough money to pay the bill.
(E) The food was more expensive than the price on the menu.

54. Woman: Your sister didn’t recognize me at first.
Man: I’m not surprised.
What does the speaker imply?
(A) He thinks his sister doesn’t know the woman.
(B) He thinks the woman has changed a lot.
(C) He thinks his sister is mistaken.
(D) He agrees with his sister.
(E) He thinks it is an unusual situation.

55. Corporations, companies ______ by many stockholders rather than by a single proprietor, began to play an important economic role in the late nineteenth century.
(A) own
(B) owned
(C) owning
(D) to be owned
(E) to be owning

56. _____ students studying in a foreign country are provided with information about literacy practices and academic culture of that country, they will feel stranded in that academic environment.
(A) As
(B) In order that
(C) Unless
(D) As soon as
(E) Where

57. Dani was extremely tired when he arrived, because he _________ for his flight for three hours.
(A) waited
(B) was waiting
(C) had waited
(D) had been waiting
(E) had been waited

58. Ferry: Nine of Indonesia’s main rivers are contaminated with dangerously high levels of carbon dioxide.
Dita: I think the government ____ the dumping of industrial chemicals and agriculture and domestic waste by strictly implementing the law.
(A) had better prevent
(B) must have prevented
(C) would rather prevent
(D) should have been preventing
(E) could prevent

59. The term ’rock’, ____ a shortened form of ’rock-and-roll’, was coined by an American broadcaster to replace ’rhythm-and-blues’.
(A) it is
(B) which is
(C) for which
(D) which it is
(E) is

60. Unless the government succeeds in significantly reducing the rate of poverty, child-labor will continue to exist.
From the above sentence we may conclude that   ____.
(A) the government has so far not yet succeeded in eliminating child-labor
(B) having reduced the rate of poverty, the government eliminated child labor
(C) many children are still working even though their parents are no longer poor
(D) as there are no government programs to help the poor, child-labor still exist
(E) the increase in the rate of child-labour has an influence on the rate of poverty
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