Soal Simak UI 2014 Bahasa Inggris (2)

Soal Simak UI 2014 Bahasa Inggris (2)

Soal Simak UI

(1) Wild animals have been kept in captivity for thousands of years, often as symbols of power or religious significance. (2) However, what is now recognized as the modern zoo was developed in the early part of the 19th century with London, Paris and Dublin zoos opening within a few years of each other. (3) This coincided with the Victorian fascination with natural history and increasing urbanization of the population of Europe, and these 19th-century zoos proved to be immensely popular, with millions flocking to see unusual animals from far off lands. (4) The majority of zoos served simply to display animals, with the more advanced among them, also utilizing their collections for the study of zoology. (5) By visiting zoos people make a direct contribution through entry tickets to maintaining the threatened species in zoos. (6) However, over time good zoos have changed their mission and focus due to a growing realization and documentation of the decline in wildlife, driven mostly by loss of habitat. (7) From the mid-20th century these zoos have been finding ways to help conserve wild animals and their habitats, and the animals now fulfill a number of roles, from education to ambassadors for their species.

41. Which of the following sentences is irrelevant?

(A) Sentence 2
(B) Sentence 4
(C) Sentence 5
(D) Sentence 6
(E) Sentence 7

42. The following paragraph most likely discusses ... .

(A) reasons why people enjoy going to zoos
(B) conservation of animals in the wilderness
(C) effects of the changing roles of modern zoos
(D) challenges of keeping animals in modern zoos
(E) examples of zoo animals performing various roles

A calendar is a system of organizing units of time for the purpose of reckoning time over extended periods. By convention, the day is the smallest calendrical unit of time; the measurement of fractions of a day is classified as timekeeping. The __43__ of this definition is due to the diversity of methods that have been used in creating calendars. Although some calendars replicate astronomical cycles according to fixed rules, others are based on abstract, perpetually repeating cycles of no astronomical __44__. Some calendars are regulated by astronomical observations, some carefully and redundantly enumerate every unit, and some contain ambiguities and discontinuities. Some calendars are __45__ in written laws; others are transmitted by oral tradition. The common theme of calendar making is the desire to organize units of time to satisfy the needs and preoccupations of society. In addition to serving practical purposes, the process of organization provides a sense, however illusory, of understanding and controlling time itself. __46__, calendars serve as a link between mankind and the cosmos. It is little wonder that calendars have held a sacred status and have served as a source of social order and cultural identity. Calendars have provided the basis for planning agricultural, hunting, and migration cycles, for divination and prognostication, and for maintaining cycles of religious and __47__ events. Whatever their sophistication, calendars must ultimately be judged as social contracts, not as scientific treatises.

43. ...

(A) general
(B) generally
(C) generality
(D) generalize
(E) generalized

44. ...

(A) gist
(B) futility
(C) outcome
(D) significance
(E) consequence

45. ...

(A) chosen
(B) elected
(C) codified
(D) preferred
(E) discussed

46. ...

(A) On the other hand
(B) Nevertheless
(C) Besides
(D) Thus
(E) Still

47. ...

(A) civil
(B) civility
(C) civilian
(D) civilize
(E) civilization
From birth, infants naturally show a preference for human contact and interaction, including faces and voices. These basic predispositions to social stimuli are altered in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A new study conducted by researchers at the Yale University School of Medicine now reports that 6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism divert their gaze from facial features when that face is speaking. One of the best methods to examine autism in very young infants is the use of eye-tracking. This technology uses advanced video monitoring and special software that tracks and ’maps’ exactly where the eyes are focused and for how long. Dr. Frederick Shic and his colleagues used this method to examine how 6-month-old infants looked at videos of still, smiling, and speaking faces. The infants were later assessed at 3 years of age and divided into groups based on their diagnosis of ASD, other developmental delays, or typical development. Infants who later developed ASD not only looked at all faces less than other infants, but also, when shown a face that was speaking, looked away from key facial features such as the eyes and mouth. "These results suggest that the presence of speech disrupts typical attentional processing of faces in those infants later diagnosed with ASD," said Shic. "This is the first study to isolate an atypical response to speech as a specific characteristic in the first half year after birth that is associated with later emerging ASD." These findings indicate that infants who later develop ASD have difficulty maintaining attention to relevant social information as early as 6 months of age, a phenomenon that could reduce the quality of their social and communicative exchanges with others and, consequently, the trajectory of their social development. Autism typically can’t be diagnosed until at least two years of age, but this and other studies confirm that abnormalities in behavior and attention can be detected as early as 6 months of age. "It seems clear that brain changes related to autism appear
much earlier than we traditionally diagnose this disorder," commented Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry. "This study elegantly illustrates that autism-related disturbances in social relatedness are present very early in life, shaping one’s most fundamental social contacts." These affected infants may be experiencing an altered social experience at a critical developmental point. The hope is that this and further research can help clarify how and when the developmental trajectory is altered in children who develop autism and, potentially, develop targeted interventions that could normalize their developmental processes.

48. The author’s purpose in writing this article is to ... .

(A) compare typical children and children that develop autism at early age.
(B) illustrate the advanced research in psychiatry due tomodern technology.
(C) argue that autistic infants should receive special treatment fromtheir family.
(D) explain that autism can be detected early by using an eye-tracking test on infants.
(E) informthat infants with autismhave difficulties in identifying people’s intentions.

49. According to the text, infants with ASD ... .

(A) gazed at facesmore frequently than typical infants.
(B) stared at all faces without noticing their key features.
(C) were more attracted to smiling faces than speaking faces.
(D) avoided looking atmain facial features of speaking faces.
(E) diverted their gaze from speaking faces and smiling faces.

50. The word "atypical" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ... .

(A) illegal
(B) unusual
(C) important
(D) irregular
(E) impossible

51. It can be inferred from the passage that the research ... .

(A) succeeded in revealing new important information about autism diagnosis.
(B) managed to discover the reasons autism causes changes in children’ brains.
(C) found why autism at an early stage was easier to detect than at a later stage.
(D) convinced parents to send their 6-month-old babies to get the eye-tracking test.
(E) required many years of observation and collaboration with various researchers.

52. According to the text, which of the following is NOT expected from research on autism?

(A) Shed light on how autistic children have different developmental processes.
(B) Design involvement plan for children with autism to normalize their progress.
(C) Explain the time children with autism develop differently from typical children.
(D) Come up with solutions how to return autistic children’s development to normal.
(E) Clarify the effects of autism on children and their relationships with the parents.

(1) Current wisdom inclines toward the view that disasters are not exceptional events. (2)They tend to be repetitive and to concentrate in particular places. (3) With regard to __53__, seismic and volcanic belts, hurricane-generating areas and unstable slopes are well known. (4) Moreover, the frequency of events and therefore their statistical recurrence intervals are often fairly well established at least for the smaller and more frequent occurrences. (5) Many technological hazards also follow more or less predictable patterns, although these __54__ become apparent only when research reveals them. (6) __55__, intelligence gathering, strategic studies, and policy analyses can help us to understand the pattern of emergencies resulting from conflict and insurgence. (7) Thus, there is little excuse for being caught unprepared. (8) The main scope of emergency planning is to __56__ the risk to life and limb posed by actual and potential disasters. (9) Secondary motives involve reducing damage, ensuring public safety during the aftermath of a disaster, and caring for survivors and the disadvantaged . (10) Inefficiencies in planning are translated very easily into loss of life, injuries, or damage __57__ could have been avoided. (11) Thus, emergency planning is at least a moral, and perhaps also a legal, responsibility for all those who are involved with the safety of the public or employees. (12)Moreover, planning cannot be successfully improvised during emergencies; this represents one of the worst forms of inefficiency and most likely sources of error and confusion. (13) Fortunately, however, 50 years of intensive research and accumulated experience have furnished an ample basis for planning. (14) Given that disasters tend to be repetitive events, they form a cycle that can be divided into phases of mitigation, preparedness, response and delivery, including reconstruction. (15) The first two stages occur before catastrophe strikes and the last two afterwards. (16) The actions taken differ for each of the periods, as different needs __58__. (17) Mitigation comprises all actions designed to reduce the impact of future disasters. (18) These are usually divided into structural measures and non-structural measures, which include land-use planning, insurance, legislation, and evacuation planning. (19) The term
preparedness refers to actions taken to ease the impact of disasters when they are forecast. (20) They also include security measures, such as the evacuation of vulnerable populations and sandbagging of river levees as flood-waters begin to rise. (21) Response refers to emergency actions taken during both the impact of a disaster and the short-termaftermath. (22) The principal emphasis is on saving human lives. (23) Victims are rescued and the immediate needs of survivors are attended to. (24) Recovery is the process of repairing damage, __60__ services, and reconstructing facilities after disaster has struck. (25) While major catastrophes may take as long as 25 years to recover, much less time is needed in lighter impacts or disasters that strike smaller areas.

53. ...

(A) emergency planning
(B) natural catastrophes
(C) security measures
(D) impacts of disaster
(E) strategic study

54. ...

(A) have to
(B) should
(C) will
(D) must
(E) may

55. ...
(A) Therefore,
(B) Finally,
(C) However,
(D) Similarly,
(E) In addition,

56. ...

(A) inform
(B) endanger
(C) attempt
(D) take
(E) reduce

57. ...

(A) that
(B) whose
(C) who
(D) in which
(E) for which

58. ...

(A) were tackled
(B) are tackled
(C) are tackling
(D) tackled
(E) to tackle

59. The word "comprises" in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to ... .

(A) means
(B) ensures
(C) encompasses
(D) prepares
(E) emphasizes

60. ...

(A) restore
(B) to restore
(C) restored
(D) restoring

(E) it restores
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