I. Study the text and choose the best answer to the question that follow.

     It has been said that people can be judged by the company they keep. New research from Michigan State University (MSU) shows that what is true for the living is also true for the dead. The study, published in the current issue of Nature Scientific Reports, shows that postmortem microbiome - population of micro organisms that move in after death - can provide crucial insights into the public health. Regardless of many factors - sex, ethnicity, or even type of death - the microbiome is consistent and distinct, depending on the number of days after death.
     Based on the growing number of partnerships between MSU forensic entomologists and medical examiners, the police and medical communities are beginning to see the value this research can provide. A case in point is the interdisciplinary research happening between MSU and the Wayne Country Medical Examiner’s Office. The partnership initially began to better understand the bugs and microbes present and what they can tell investigators about the recently deceased. Just as the TV show says, the first 48 hours of an investigation are critical. The organisms found on a body can help estimate the time of death.
     According to Eric Benbow, MSU forensic entomologist and microbial ecologist and study co-author, the microbial stopwatch, as it has recently been called, is a telling timepiece that can assist us in determining when someone died. It is comparable to a town with a changing population: a company starts up, and an entire new population moves in. In death, that microbial population is different after two days, and it completely turns over again a few days later.
     MSU’s kits and the collection protocol are now being regularly used in death investigations. One noteworthy case involves a mother who stored her two dead children in a freezer. The microbial data were the first used to understand how the postmortem microbiome changes in unusual circumstances of death and concealment, in this case when bodies were frozen. The ever-growing dataset is painting a picture of the public health - of the living - including many populations that are underserved and understudied by the medical community.
     For the first time, Michigan State University is demonstrating that sampling the postmortem may have public health surveillance importance like monitoring the diversity and frequency of antibiotic resistant genes from the general population. Additionally, the victim may have died of a drug overdose, but the research also revealed that the microbes can show that the person suffered from a heart disease.
     According to the study’s lead author Jennifer Pencal, during the first 48 hours the samples that had been gathered from a predominantly industrial urban population confirmed that microbial biodiversity is a predictor of the host’s health conditions, such as heart disease, when they were living. The researchers have demonstrated that this microbiome could be an effective tool for assessing the health of living populations.

Adapted from

41. what is the text mainly about?
A. Investigating deaths
B. Organism living in dead bodies
C. Solving crimes using bugs and microbes
D. Estimating the time of death of the deceased
E. Invaluable insight gathered from micro organisms of the dead

42. Which of the following is TRUE according to the text?
A. The police have yet to see the values of the research to be used in investigations.
B. The time of death can be estimated by examining organisms present in a body.
C. Initially, the research only aimed to study organisms found in a body.
D. The microbial stopwatch is used to analyze organisms found in a body.
E. The microbial population in a dead body will remain the same after two days.

43. What does the word “they” in line 9 refer to?
A. bugs and microbes
B. medical communities
C. medical examiners
D. etymologists
E. investigators
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44. The word “critical” in line 10 could best be replaced by which of the following?
A. supportive
B. unimportant
C. worrying
D. crucial
E. beneficial
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45. It is implied paragraph two that
A. the police had used postmortem microbiome in their investigations before MSU initiated their study.
B. getting important information about the body can be difficult 48 hours after the person dies.
C. the TV show focuses on murder cases.
D. the organisms present in a body can inform investigators the foods eaten when the person was still alive.
E. bugs and microbes living in a body feed on each other to survive.

46. The text states all of the following EXCEPT
A. postmortem microbiome may enable public health monitoring.
B. the disease suffered by the dead can be determined from postmortem microbiome.
C. the cause of death can be found from microbes present in a body.
D. the microbes found in a body can be examined to predict the health condition when the person was alive.
E. the microbes found in a body can help determine the types of antibiotics taken when the person was alive.

47. Why does the author compare microbial population to a changing town population?
A. To explain that a town population can change dramatically
B. To compare death to the changing population of a town
C. To illustrate the danger of postmortem microbiome two days after the time of death
D. To analogize the change of microbial population
E. To give an example of the causes of dramatic population change

48. The word “revealed” in line 23 is closest in meaning to
A. exposed
B. disclosed
C. showed
D. publicized
E. discovered
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49. Which of the following term is defined in the text?
A. Postmortem microbiome
B. Microbial stopwatch
C. Microbial population
D. Microbial diversity
E. Dead bodies

50. What can be inferred from the text?
A. Organism found in a body are powerful tools for medical research.
B. Postmortem microbiome has affected antibiotics prescribed for patience.
C. The importance of postmortem microbiome can significantly increase.
D. Information gathered from postmortem microbiome can help develop more effective medicines.
E. MSU’s kits and the collection protocol can help solve murder cases more quickly.

II. The text below has incomplete sentences. Choose one word of phrase from each number that best competes the sentences.

     Vinegar is the product of a two-stage fermentation. In the first stage, yeasts (51) ____ into ethanol anaerobically, while in the second ethanol is oxidized to acetic (ethanoic) acid aerobically by bacteria of the genera Acetobacer and Gluconobacer. This (52) ____ a common mechanism of spoilage in alcoholic beverages and the discovery of vinegar (53) ____ due to the observation that this product of spoilage could be put to some good use as a flavoring and preservative. The name vinegar (54) ____ the French vin aigre for ‘sour wine’ and even today (55) ____ vinegar in a region usually reflect the local alcoholic beverage; (56) ____, malt vinegar in the UK, wine vinegar in France, and rice vinegar in Japan.
     In vinegar brewing, the alcoholic substrate, (57) ____ vinegar stock, is produced using the same or very similar processes to those used in alcoholic beverage production. Where (58) ____, they stem largely from the vinegar brewer’s relative (59) _____ the flavor of the intermediate and his concern to maximize conversion of sugar (60) ____ ethanol. In the production of malt vinegar, for example, hops are not used and the wort is not boiled so the activity of starch-degrading enzymes continues into the fermentation.

Taken from Adams and Moss. (2008). Food Microbiology 3rd edition. Royal Society of Chemistry

51. ....
A. converting sugars
B. convert sugars
C. converts sugars
D. convert sugars
E. is converting sugars

52. ....
A. is the second process
B. is secondly prosessed
C. is the second process
D. is the second process of
E. second process is

53. ....
A. was doubtful
B. was in doubt
C. were no doubt
D. was doubtless
E. were without doubt

54. ....
A. is in fact deriving from
B. is in fact from deriving
C. is in fact derived from
D. in fact derived from
E. is deriving from fact

55. ....
A. the most popular
B. the most popular types
C. most types of popular
D. the most popular types of
E. popular types of most

56. ....
A. for example
B. on the other had
C. in short
D. in addition
E. on the contrary

57. ....
A. to known
B. known as
C. to be known as
D. it is known as
E. as it is known

58. ....
A. di differences occur
B. different occurrences are
C. are the different occurrences
D. they occur differently
E. differences occur

59. ....
A. disinterest in
B. disinterest with
C. disinterested with
D. disinterested in
E. to disinterest

60. ....
A. to
B. from
C. into
D. on to
E. upon
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