(1) The mirror test is a test to determine whether an animal can recognize its own reflection in a mirror as an image of itself. (2) Gordon Gallup Jr. accomplished a way to determine whether an animal can recognize its own reflection or not by surreptitiously marking the animal with two odorless dye spots. (3) The test spot is on a part of the animal that is visible in front of a mirror and the other control spot is in an accessible but hidden part of the animal’s body. (4) The test was developed based on observations made by Charles Darwin to animal reactions to its reflection on the mirror. (5) Scientists then observe whether the animal reacts in a manner consistent with being aware that the test dye is located on its own body while ignoring the control dye not visible in front of the mirror. (6) The animals which pass the mirror test as being self-aware will exhibit behavior including turning and adjusting its body in order to get a better view of the marking in the mirror, or poking at the marking on its own body with a limb while observing it from the mirror.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 41 sampai nomor 42.

41. Which of the following sentences is irrelevant?
(A) Sentence (1).
(B) Sentence (3).
(C) Sentence (4).
(D) Sentence (5).
(E) Sentence (6).

42. The paragraph that follows this text most likely discusses ...
(A) animal reaction to its reflection on the mirror.
(B) who Gordon Gallup Jr. is.
(C) animals’ behavior toward the dye spots.
(D) animals’ behavior toward the control dye.
(E) animals that show self-awareness.

Thanks to Ataturk, the founder of the Republic, who believed in the necessity of complete equality between women and men, all the political rights considered to be the foundation of citizenship rights were recognized for women in Turkey in a very short period of time. Women in Turkey (43)_____ the right to vote and be elected in municipal elections in 1930 and in parliamentary elections in 1934. Prior to that date, the number of countries where women had the right to vote and be elected as members of parliament was 28 and the number of countries where women actually were elected as members of parliament was 17. (44)_____ women obtained the right to vote in 1944 in France, in 1945 in Italy and in 1948 in Belgium, it appears that Turkey was (45)_____ compared with many countries. A total of 18 women became members of parliament in 1935, which was the year when women members were represented at the highest ratio in the parliament with 4.6 percent. (46)_____ , as of 1946, when the multi-party system was adopted, a decrease in the number of women deputies was observed. Although the number of women taking an active role in politics has increased in recent years, the number of women are still (47)_____ less than men. The last general election, which took place on 18 April 1999, brought 550 deputies elected into the Turkish parliament, 22 of which were women (4 percent).
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 43 sampai
nomor 47.

43. ....
(A) utilized
(B) performed
(C) evaded
(D) obtained
(E) expressed

44. ....
(A) If
(B) Despite
(C) While
(D) Although
(E) Since

45. ....
(A) in advance
(B) way ahead
(C) tardily
(D) prior to
(E) beforehand

46. ....
(A) While
(B) When
(C) Then
(D) As soon as
(E) Before

47. ....
(A) considered
(B) consideration
(C) considering
(D) considerable
(E) considerably

Alligators, which often engage in violent fights over territories and mates, have made scientists puzzled why their wounds rarely get infected. Now researchers think the secret lies in the reptiles’ blood. Chemists in Louisiana found that blood from the American alligator can successfully destroy 23 strains of bacteria, including strains known to be resistant to antibiotics. In addition, the blood was able to deplete and destroy a significant amount of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
Study co-author Lancis Darville at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge believes that peptides – fragments of proteins – within alligator blood help the animals stop fatal infections. Such peptides are also found in the skin of frogs and toads, as well as komodo, dragons and crocodiles. The scientists think that these peptides could one day lead to medicines that would provide humans with the same antibiotic protection. ’We are in the process of separating and identifying the specific peptides in alligator blood,’ said Darville. ’Once we sequence these peptides, we can obtain their chemical structure to potentially create new drugs.’
Study co-author Mark Merchant, a biochemist at Mc Neese State University in Lake Charles, Louisiana, was among the first to notice alligators’ unusual resistance. He was intrigued that, despite living in swampy environments where bacteria thrive, alligators that suffered frequent scratches and bruises rarely developed fatal infections. Merchant therefore created human and alligator serum-protein-rich blood plasma that has been able to remove clotting agents, and exposed each of them to 23 strains of bacteria. Human serum destroyed only eight of the bacterial strains while the alligator serum killed all 23. When the alligator was exposed to HIV, the researchers found that a good amount of the virus was destroyed.
The study team thinks that pills and creams containing alligator peptides could be available at level pharmacies within seven to ten years. Such products would be a solution to patients that need extra help preventing infections, such as diabetes patients with foot ulcers, burn victims and people suffering from auto-immune diseases. However, there may be potential problems before alligator-based medicines can reach drugstore shelves. For example, initial tests have revealed that higher concentrations of the alligator serum tend to be toxic to human cells.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 48 sampai nomor 52.

48. The paragraph that precedes the passage might talk about ...
(A) The current research to prevent infections.
(B) The potensial causes of HIV in children.
(C) That use of reptile peptides to cure infections
(D) Auto-immune diseases in HIV patients.
(E) The reasons alligators rarely develop fatal infections.

49. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about peptides within alligators’ blood?
(A) They are fragments of proteins.
(B) They may stop fatal infections.
(C) They are injected in the human body.
(D) They are within the blood of reptiles.
(E) They have the same function as antibiotics.

50. The word ’bruises’ in line 14 is closest in meaning to ...
(A) damages.
(B) contusion.
(C) crashes.
(D) swellings.
(E) blows.

51. The followings are what Merchant, the biochemist, experienced EXCEPT that he ...
(A) developed two kinds of serum, each can destroy 23 strains of bacteria.
(B) learned why alligators can survive in bacterial environments.
(C) became interested in alligators’ resistance to infections.
(D) created a serum which can remove things that cause clotting.
(E) found out that crocodiles can decrease infection caused by HIV.

52. The writer concludes his essay by saying that ...
(A) scientists are now searching for a medicine against HIV.
(B) alligators have contributed a lot to stop human life.
(C) reptiles have peptides which can be used as serum.
(D) peptides in the blood are only found in American alligators.
(E) alligator serum has the possibility to harm human beings.

A kiss is a demonstration of friendship or love or a form of greeting expressed by pressing the lips or cheek of one person to the lips, cheek, or hand of another. In theWestern world, a kiss is used to express (54)_____ between members of the same or different sexes and is practiced by all age groups. While certain sexual implications are recognized by the act of kissing, in theWest a kiss often is given ceremoniously and in public. In East Asia a (55)_____ influence of Western mores on younger persons has been noted.
Although a kiss generally involves the lips, in some cultures the touching of any part of one’s face to that of another could be construed as a kiss. Eskimos touch noses (56)_____ In southeastern India the custom is for one person to apply the mouth and nose to the cheek of another, and then inhale. The Lapps of northern Europe have a ritual (57)_____ the nose of one is pressed against the cheek of another, whereupon the active partner then makes a nasal-sounding noise.
At the conclusion of the act, the eyelids are lowered and the lips smacked.
It is not known precisely when and where the practice of kissing first began. It has not been found recorded in early writings about ancient Egypt. In India, however, the practice (58)_____ as early as 1200 B.C. The early Greek historian Herodotus revealed that among the Persians equals in rank kissed on the mouth, whereas unequals in rank greeted each other on the cheek. Hebrew history contains references to "Esau falling on the neck of Jacob and kissing him".
Early Christians saluted one another with a holy kiss. Since that time, a kiss (59)_____ part of many Christian services. The Kiss of Peace, a gesture of greeting exchanged between worshippers, is now part of the Roman Catholic Mass. The Kiss of Death is a term used to designate a fatal or destructive relationship or action. It is presumed to have originated with Judas Iscariot, who used a kiss to identify Jesus Christ for arrest.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 53 sampai nomor 60.

53. The sentence "However, older Chinese and Japanese still consider the act of kissing to be intimate and reserved for moments of privacy." hould be put as ...
(A) the last sentence of paragraph 1.
(B) the last sentence of paragraph 2.
(C) the last sentence of paragraph 3.
(D) the last sentence of paragraph 4.
(E) the last sentence of paragraph 5.

54. ....
(A) acceptable, affectionate and love
(B) acceptable, affective and loving
(C) acceptance, affection and love
(D) acceptably, affectionately and lovingly
(E) acceptance, affect and love

55. ....
(A) grow
(B) grew
(C) grown
(D) will grow
(E) growing

56. ....
(A) a greeting as a means of expressing
(B) expressing of as a means a greeting
(C) of expressing a means as a greeting
(D) as a means of expressing a greeting
(E) a greeting as expressing of a means

57. ....
(A) in which
(B) which
(C) whose
(D) that
(E) who

58. ....
(A) may have been introduced
(B) would have been introduced
(C) could be introduced
(D) may be introduced
(E) should have been introduced

59. ....
(A) becomes
(B) became
(C) has become
(D) had become
(E) will become

60. The expression "It is presumed to have originated with Judas Iscariot ..." in the last sentence of paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to ...
(A) It is thought that Judas Iscariot used this term to describe this action.
(B) It is thought that Judas Iscariot coined the term.
(C) It is believed that the term came from Judas Iscariot betrayal of Jesus Christ.
(D) It is certain that the term originated with Judas Iscariot.
(E) It is understood that Judas Iscariot was the first person who used the term.
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