Another of the processes that affects the number of species on earth is extinction, which refers to the situation in which a species ceases to exist. When environmental conditions change, a species needs to adapt to the new environmental conditions, or it may become extinct. Extinction of a species is not a rare occurrence but is instead a rather commonplace one: it has been estimated that more than 99 percent of the species that have ever existed have become extinct. Extinction may occur when a species fails to adapt to evolving environmental conditions in a limited area, a process known as background extinction. In contrast, a broader and more abrupt extinction, known as mass extinction, may happen as a result of a catastrophic event or global climatic change. When such event or change occurs, some species are able to adapt to the new environment, while those that are unable to adapt become extinct. From fossil evidence, it appears that at least five great mass extinctions have occurred; the last mass extinction occurred 65 million years ago, when the dinosaurs became extinct after 140 million years of existence on earth, marking the end of the Mesozoic Era and the beginning of the Cenozoic Era.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 41 sampai nomor 42.

41. What is the topic of the paragraph?
(A) Environmental factors related to extinction
(B) The extinction of species
(C) Background extinction
(D) Species’ability to adapt
(E) Factors affecting the number of species

42. The paragraph preceding this passage most probably discusses _____.
(A) natural conditions that contributed to the process of extinction
(B) types of species that lived during the Mesozoic Era
(C) how species adapted to the environment in the Cenozoic Era
(D) the reasons why extinction couldn’t be avoided
(E) a different factor that influences the total population of species

The unmistakable buzz of a bumblebee is one of the quintessential sounds of British summertime. However, this slender sound and faint utterance is under threat because bumblebees are in crisis. Of the 25 species native to Britain, three have already been declared extinct, five are designated UK Biodiversity Action Plan priority species, and many more have undergone major range contractions. The great yellow bumblebee, Bombus distinguendus, for example, is now restricted to northern Scotland, Orkney and the Hebrides, and the shrill carder bee, Bombus sylvarum, which wasonce common throughout southern Britain, now exists only in seven small groups. In addition, as these populationsbecome more isolated they can become inbred, which increases the risk of further extinctions.
At the end of summer all the bumblebees in a colony die, apart from the virgin queens who mate and then leave the nest to hibernate over winter. In the spring a queen will make a new nest, lay eggs and then raise the first batch of workers. This annual cycle depends on there being enough pollen and nectar to sustain the queen as she establishes her nest and team of workers as the colony grows. Pollen is a protein-rich fuel that is key to helping over-wintered queens tokickstart their reproductive systems ready and for the development of larvae. Nectar, on the other hand, is a sugar-rich fuel which is converted to honey to feed adult bees. The bees make honey by adding to the nectar in their honey sacs an enzyme called invertase, which converts sucrose sugars to a mixture of glucose and fructose. Once the workers are developed, they take over the foraging and the queen concentrates on laying eggs. Later in the year, if the colony has been successful and reaches a large enough size, the queen will produce male eggs and some female eggs are raised as new queens.
A lack of resources is thought to be the critical factor that is affecting bumblebee populations, and it is related to the loss of wild flowers, both in the countryside and in vast areas of suburban gardens. The biggest impact has been the availability of food and drink, in particular the continuity of supplies throughout the colony cycle. Although nectar is available from a wide range of plants, the bees can be much more choosy about where they collect pollen from, sometimes restricting this to very few flowering plants. In Scotland, overwintered queens of the declining and beautiful bilberry bumblebee focus on bilberry in spring. Other species may focus on legumes such as red clover and bird’s-foot trefoil. Sadly, because the UK has lost 98% of its flower-rich grasslands, this has been devastating for some bumblebee species.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 43 sampai nomor 47.

43. What is the best title of the passage?
(A) The Lifecycle of Bumblebees
(B) Special Species of Bumblebees
(C) The Declining Bumblebee Population
(D) Sources of Food and Drink for Bumblebees
(E) The Survival Techniques of a Bumblebee Colony

44. What can be inferred from the passage about the lifecycle of bumblebees?
(A) The new workers are brought up by the male bees.
(B) Bumblebees hibernate throughout winter to survive.
(C) The virgin queens survive the summer and then continue the reproduction.
(D) All the bumblebees in a colony die when summer ends.
(E) The continuation of the lifecycle depends on the skill of the queens in collecting food.

45. The word ’developed’ in line 15 can best be replaced by _____.
(A) advanced
(B) mature
(C) old
(D) ready
(E) large enough

46. Which of the following statements about the passage is FALSE?
(A) When the colony has been thriving and reached a sufficient size, the queen will lay male eggs.
(B) Some female eggs are laid to produce new queen bees.
(C) The declining population of bumblebees has been attributed to the inadequate food resource.
(D) Nectar and pollen are still widely available even for the choosy species of bumblebees.
(E) A large percentage of the UK area has lost its ability to supply food for bumblebees.

47. Why did the writer mention the queens of bilberry bumblebee?
(A) To describe how a bumblebee may look like
(B) To give example of bees which can survive the winter
(C) To show one species of bees whose food resource is declining
(D) To give an example of a species of bumblebees which is declining
(E) To give an example of bees which are very selective about source of pollen

Food additives play a vital role in today’s bountiful and nutritious food supply. They allow our growing urban population __(48)__ a variety of safe and tasty foods year-round. They also make possible an array of __(49)__ foods without the inconvenience of daily shopping. Although salt, baking soda, vanilla and yeast are commonly used in food today, many people tend to think of any additive as complex __(50)__ compounds added to foods. __(51)__ , all food additives are carefully regulated by federal authorities and various international organizations to __(52)__ that foods are safe to eat and are accurately labeled.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 48 sampai nomor 52.

48. ...
(A) enjoyment
(B) enjoying
(C) to be enjoyed
(D) to enjoy
(E) be enjoyed

49. ...
(A) convenient
(B) convenience
(C) conveniently
(D) convention
(E) conventional

50. ...
(A) chemist
(B) chemistry
(C) chemical
(D) chemist’s
(E) chemicals

51. ...
(A) Unexpectedly
(B) As you would expect
(C) Apparently
(D) Needless to say
(E) Surprisingly

52. ...
(A) ensure
(B) enlighten
(C) enforce
(D) enhance
(E) encourage

Anyone can buy the shares of a quoted company. They are freely bought and sold in a special market - the Stock Exchange. When a company wishes __(54)__, it applies to the Stock Exchange for a quotation, which is a statement of the share price. If the application is successful, the Stock Exchange deals in its shares and publishes __(55)__ price each day. There are three main reasons why companies obtain a quotation. First, many companies need __(56)__. For example, they want to build a bigger factory or produce a new range of goods. To finance this, they could try to get the money from a bank. But perhaps they have already borrowed heavily, so they do not want to __(57)__. Secondly, there are companies which have been built up by their owners over the years. As the owner gets older, he does not want all his money to be tied up in the business. Therefore, he sells part of the company to the public.
Finally, there is the type of business which started spread among various members of a family. Some __(59)__ have no interest in the company, while others have different
ideas about how to run it. Shareholders disagree strongly, so it becomes difficult to run the company properly. In such a case, the only solution may be to obtain a quotation on the Stock Exchange.
There is one reason why the owners of a company may not wish to obtain a quotation. If the directors are the only shareholders in their company, they may be getting substantial benefits from it. For example, the business may own things like the directors’ houses, their cars and even their wives’ cars. It pays perhaps for their petrol and holidays,
__(60)__ are business expenses. In this case, it may be better not to become a quoted company.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 53 sampai nomor 60.

53. This sentence "Therefore, he sells part of the company to the public." should be ....
(A) the last sentence of paragraph 1
(B) the last sentence of paragraph 2
(C) the last sentence of paragraph 3
(D) the first sentence of paragraph 4
(E) the last sentence of paragraph 4

54. ....
(A) to quote
(B) to be quoting
(C) quoting
(D) to be quoted
(E) quoted

55. ....
(A) its
(B) their
(C) his
(D) our
(E) your

56. ....
(A) to expand money to raise their business
(B) to expand their business to raise money
(C) to raise money to expand their business
(D) to raise business to expand their money
(E) to expand money by raising their business

57. ....
(A) increase their debt
(B) pay off their money
(C) cancel their shares
(D) repay their debt
(E) clear their business

58. ....
(A) is now becoming
(B) now becomes
(C) had become
(D) will become
(E) has now become

59. ....
(A) should
(B) have to
(C) can
(D) may
(E) must

60. ....
(A) that
(B) where
(C) which
(D) why
(E) what
Next Post »