Soal Simak UI 2014 Bahasa Inggris (1)

Soal Simak UI 2014 Bahasa Inggris (1)

(1) More often than not, disagreements are based not on differences in reasoning, but in the values, assumptions, or information brought to bear. (2) If we believe that all politicians are crooks, we will infer that a specific politician’s actions are scurrilous. (3) If we believe that politicians act for the good of all, we will look for some benefit in their actions. (4) Either way, we will try to use reason to explain the actions. (5)We will look for some coherent explanation as a way ofmaking sense of things. (6) As we saw earlier, if we can understand why someone would do something, why someone might say something, why someone might act in a certain way, we feel we have made sense of the act or statement. (7) It’s like a murder trial: if we can put together opportunity, motive, and means, we can make a case. (8) The more evidencewe have before us, and the more carefullywe reason, the more valid our inferences. (9) Our inferences are not based on evidence. (10) This principle is also relevant in reading a text.

41. Which of the following sentences is irrelevant?

(A) Sentence 3
(B) Sentence 5
(C) Sentence 7
(D) Sentence 8
(E) Sentence 9

42. The following paragraph most likely discusses ... .

(A) valid evidence and reasons for reading a text
(B) explanation on the principle of reading a text
(C) the relevance of the principle in text reading
(D) valid principle to infer a reading text
(E) differences in reasoning and inferencing

There are two common misinterpretations associated with the process of natural selection. The first involves the phrase survival of the fittest. Individual survival is certainly important because those that do not survive will not reproduce. But themore important factor is the number of __43__ an organism leaves. An organism that survived for many years but has not reproduced has not contributed any of its genes to the next generation and so has been selected against. The key,__44__, is not survival alone but survival and reproduction of the more fit organisms. Second, the phrase struggle for life does not necessarily refer to open conflict and fighting. It is usually much more subtle than that. When a resource such as nesting material or food is in short supply, some individuals survive and reproduce more effectively than others. For example, many birds require holes in trees as nesting places. If these are in short supply, some birds will be fortunate and find a good nesting site, others will occupy less suitable holes, and some may not find any. There may or may not be fighting for __45__ of a site. If a site is already occupied, a bird may not necessarily try to __46__ its occupant but just continue to search for another site. Those that successfully occupy good nesting sites will be more __47__ in raising young than will those that must occupy poor sites or that do not find any.

43. ...

(A) dependents
(B) branches
(C) newborns
(D) descendants
(E) children

44. ...

(A) however
(B) otherwise
(C) therefore
(D) moreover
(E) furthermore

45. ...

(A) possess
(B) possessive
(C) possessing
(D) possession
(E) possessively

46. ...

(A) dispatch
(B) dislodge
(C) dismay
(D) disorientate
(E) dislocate

47. ...

(A) success
(B) succeed
(C) succeeded
(D) successful
(E) successfully

Is it true that animals tell us about bad weather is coming? If your dog always comes inside right before it rains, you may think that animals can predict the weather. You might hear that cats get frisky as kittens when a bad storm is approaching. It’s probably more accurate to say that animals react to certain environmental signals that accompany weather changes, not to the weather it self.
A prevalent opinion is that animals can detect certain events, like earthquakes, as soon as they happen, even if the originating event is a great distance away. While this ability wouldn’t make much of a difference to people at the scene of the disaster, it could conceivably assist those located farther from the epicenter. Some researchers even believe animals may be able to sense the precursors to these events before they actually strike. They are saying that animals make greater use of their existing five senses, especially when compared to humans. However, hard evidence of this is extremely limited;most of the evidence is anecdotal.
The most critical sense is hearing. There are some sounds people can’t hear. On the low end of the scale are infrasonic, low-pitched sound vibrations on the hertz frequency scale falling below 20 hertz (Hz). On the other end are high-pitched sounds, like dog whistles. People typically hear in a range between 20 and 20,000 Hz (middle-aged adults usually don’t hear beyond 12,000 or 14,000 Hz). Elephants, however, generally hear between 16 and 12,000 Hz. Cattle also start hearing sound at 16 Hz, but can continue to hear all the way to 40,000 Hz. And earthquake shockwaves and ocean waves produce sounds in the infrasonic range.
Some researchers think certain animals, like elephants, get an early earthquake warning because they can sense shockwaves in the ground through their large feet. They don’t hear the sound but they do sense distant, unfamiliar vibrations rolling in that terrify them into fleeing for safety. How animals, not just elephants, sense these vibrations is generally unknown. Researchers are examining different organs, body parts and nerve chains in a variety of species that may be able to pick up sound vibrations that humans just can’t sense.
This theory could also account for the just-in-time-reactions of other animals with less acute hearing just prior to the tsunami. Researchers note that infrasonic sound produces uneasiness and nausea in people. Animals may perceive these sound vibrations as dangerous and instinctively seek safety.

48. The most appropriate title for this passage is ... .

(A) Animal Behaviors
(B) ClimateWeatherWarnings
(C) Signs of Storms
(D) Animal Ability to PredictWeather
(E) Animals in BadWeather

49. The word "conceivably" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ... .

(A) indescribably
(B) possibly
(C) thoughtfully
(D) carefully
(E) exactly

50. All of the following statements about animals behavior prior to bad weather are stated in the text, EXCEPT ... .

(A) Elephants will fly to find refuge.
(B) Dogs will lie quietly outside the door.
(C) Cats will roam the house impatiently.
(D) Dogs will find refuge in the house.
(E) Kittens will jump around the house.

51. According to the passage, the bad weather warnings shown by the animals ... .

(A) are very helpful to people in the area
(B) help to allocate the center of disaster
(C) don’t exist at all and are only hoaxes
(D) come from all five senses of the animals
(E) may be useful for people in areas far from the epicenter

52. The passage is most likely found in a ... .

(A) popular science magazine
(B) weather review
(C) natural alarmtext
(D) warning sign booklet
(E) vet handbook

(1) Current wisdom inclines toward the view that disasters are not exceptional events. (2) They tend to be repetitive and to concentrate in particular places. (3) With regard to natural catastrophes, seismic and volcanic belts, hurricane-generating areas and unstable slopes are well known. (4)Moreover, the frequency of events and therefore their statistical recurrence intervals are often fairly well established at least for the smaller and more frequent occurrences. (5) Many technological hazards also follow more or less predictable patterns, although these may become apparent onlywhen research reveals them. (6) Finally, intelligence gathering, strategic studies, and policy analyses can help us to understand __54__. (7) Thus, there is little excuse for being caught unprepared.
(8) The main scope of emergency planning is to reduce the risk to life and limb posed by actual and potential disasters. (9) Secondary motives involve reducing damage, ensuring public safety during the aftermath of a disaster, and caring for survivors and the __55__. (10) Inefficiencies in planning are translated very easily into loss of life, injuries, or damage that could have been avoided. (11) Thus, emergency planning is at least a moral, and perhaps also a legal, responsibility for all those __56__ are involved with the safety of the public or employees. (12)Moreover, planning cannot be successfully improvised during emergencies; this represents one of the worst forms of inefficiency and most likely sources of error and confusion. (13)Fortunately, however, 50 years of intensive research and accumulated experience have furnished an ample basis for planning.
(14) Given that disasters tend to be repetitive events, they __57__ a cycle that can be divided into phases of mitigation, preparedness, response and delivery, including reconstruction. (15) The first two stages occur before catastrophe strikes and the last two afterwards. (16) The actions taken differ for each of the periods, as different needs are tackled. (17)Mitigation comprises all actions designed __58__ of future disasters. (18) These are usually divided into structural measures and non-structural measures, which include land-use planning, insurance, legislation, and evacuation planning. (19) The term preparedness refers to actions taken to ease the impact of disasters when they are forecast. (20) They also include security measures, such as the evacuation of vulnerable populations and sandbagging of river levees as flood-waters begin to rise. (21) Response refers to emergency actions taken during __59__. (22) The principal emphasis is on saving human lives. (23) Victims are rescued and the immediate needs of survivors are attended to. (24) Recovery is the process of repairing damage, restoring services, and reconstructing facilities after disaster has struck. (25) While major catastrophes __60__ take as long as 25 years to recover, much less time is needed in lighter impacts or disasters that strike smaller areas.

53. The sentence "When a known significant risk exists, failure to plan can be taken as culpable negligence." should come after ... .

(A) sentence 5
(B) sentence 7
(C) sentence 11
(D) sentence 13
(E) sentence 17

54. ...

(A) resulting from the pattern of emergencies conflict and insurgence
(B) the pattern of emergencies from conflict and insurgence resulting
(C) the pattern of emergencies from resulting conflict and insurgence
(D) the pattern of emergencies resulting from conflict and insurgence
(E) resulting the pattern of emergencies from conflict and insurgence

55. ...

(A) disadvantage
(B) disadvantaged
(C) disadvantaging
(D) to disadvantage
(E) to be disadvantaged

56. ...
(A) which
(B) whose
(C) whom
(D) who
(E) why

57. ...

(A) will form
(B) has formed
(C) form
(D) formed
(E) are forming

58. ...

(A) to avoid the impact
(B) to expand the impact
(C) to restrict the impact
(D) to discontinue the impact
(E) to reduce the impact

59. ...

(A) both the impact of a disaster and the short-termaftermath
(B) either the impact of a disaster nor the short-term aftermath
(C) neither the impact of a disaster or the short-term aftermath
(D) the impact of a disaster to the short-term aftermath
(E) both the impact of a disaster rather than the short-termaftermath

60. ...
(A) must
(B) has to
(C) should
(D) may

(E) had better
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